World Bank President says a 4°C warmer world must be avoided

November 20th, 2012 by Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Humans’ emissions of greenhouse gases are breaking new records every year.

These emissions are setting the atmosphere on a path towards an average 4°Celsius increase probably by 2100.

This would cause risks beyond the experience of our civilization – including heat waves, especially in the tropics, a sea-level rise affecting hundreds of millions of people, and regional yield failures impacting global food security.

These are some of the results of a report “Turn Down the Heat – Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided” commissioned by the World Bank, and produced by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) and Climate Analytics in Berlin.

The poorest in the world are those that will be hit hardest, making development without climate policy almost impossible, the researchers concluded.

“The planetary machinery tends to be jumpy, this is to respond disproportionately to disruptions that come with the manmade greenhouse effect,” Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, PIK’s director, said.

“If we venture far beyond the 2°C global average increase, towards 4°C, we risk crossing tipping points in the Earth system.”

This could be the case with coral reefs which face collapse under unabated global warming, or with the Greenland ice sheet.

To melt the ice sheet would take thousands of years, yet this might be an irreversible process that could start soon.

“The only way to avoid this is to break with the fossil-fuel-age patterns of production and consumption,” Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, said.

The impacts of climate change are already seen. The Russian heat wave in 2010, according to preliminary estimates, produced a death toll of several thousand, annual crop failure of about 25%, and economic losses of about US$15 billion.

Extreme events like this at 4°C global warming would become “the new normal” in some parts of the world, according to the report.

In the tropics, the coolest months at the end of the century are likely to be substantially warmer than the warmest months today.

Sea level, under this scenario, would rise by 0.50 to 1.00 metre this century, and more so in coming centuries.

The rate of rise varies from one region to the other, depending on sea currents and other factors.

Projections suggest that sea-level rise will be strongest in countries like the Philippines, Mexico, and India.

Within economic sectors, too, tipping effects with rapidly increasing damages can occur, for instance in agriculture.

Already, observations showed that important cereals are sensitive to temperature increases passing certain thresholds, resulting in large-scale yield failure.

Changes in the water cycle can aggravate this, when droughts occur or flooding affects farmed land.

Dry soil (click image to expand – ©RLLord)

The report draws from the current state of science and delivers new analysis of heat waves and regional sea-level rise, so of course there remain some uncertainties,” said Dr William Hare, co-founder of Climate Analytics in Berlin and guest scientist at PIK.

“We work with that by defining risk as potential damage multiplied with the probability – a rather improbable event can be a great risk if its impacts are huge,” he said.

World Bank President Jim Yong Kim who was nominated by US President Barack Obama and assumed his new position in July 2012, has personally been briefed on the 4°C report by Dr. Schellnhuber in Washington D.C.

“A 4°C warmer world can, and must be, avoided – we need to hold warming below 2 degrees,” President Kim said in a statement.

“Lack of action on climate change threatens to make the world our children inherit a completely different world than we are living in today.”

“Climate change is one of the biggest single challenges facing development, and we need to assume the moral responsibility to take action on behalf of future generations, especially the poorest,” he said.

 

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