Diesel engine exhaust carcinogenic to humans

June 13th, 2012 by International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is a part of the World Health Organisation has classified diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans based on sufficient evidence that exposure is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer.

In 1988 IARC classified diesel exhaust as probably carcinogenic to humans. There has been mounting concern about the cancer-causing potential of diesel exhaust, particularly based on findings in epidemiological studies of workers exposed in various settings.

This was re-emphasized by the publication in March 2012 of the results of a large US National Cancer Institute/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health study of occupational exposure to such emissions in underground miners, which showed an increased risk of death from lung cancer in exposed workers.

Diesel engine exhaust from operating Guernsey buses may not always be visible but it has a stench (click image to expand - ©RLLord)

The scientific evidence was reviewed thoroughly and overall it was concluded that there was sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust.

The Working Group found that diesel exhaust is a cause of lung cancer (sufficient evidence) and also noted a positive association (limited evidence) with an increased risk of bladder cancer.

Commodore Clipper ferry's MaK 9M32 diesel engines start up in St Peter Port harbour on 6 June 2012 (click image to expand - ©RLLord)

The Working Group concluded that gasoline exhaust was possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), a finding unchanged from the previous evaluation in 1989.

Car exhaust from petrol engines is possibly carcinogenic to humans (click image to expand - ©RLLord)

Large populations are exposed to diesel exhaust in everyday life, whether through their occupation or through the ambient air.

People are exposed not only to motor vehicle exhausts but also to exhausts from other diesel engines, including from other modes of transport (e.g. diesel trains and ships) and from power generators.

Condor Vitesse leaving St Peter Port harbour. Condor Vitesse is powered by four 20-cylinder Ruston RK270 diesel engines (click image to expand - ©RLLord)

Given the rigorous, independent assessment of the science, governments and other decision-makers have a valuable evidence-base on which to consider environmental standards for diesel exhaust emissions and to continue to work with the engine and fuel manufacturers towards those goals.

Increasing environmental concerns over the past two decades have resulted in regulatory action in North America, Europe and elsewhere with successively tighter emission standards for both diesel and gasoline engines.

There is a strong interplay between standards and technology – standards drive technology and new technology enables more stringent standards.

For diesel engines, this required changes in the fuel such as marked decreases in sulfur content, changes in engine design to burn diesel fuel more efficiently and reductions in emissions through exhaust control technology.

However, while the amount of particulates and chemicals are reduced with these changes, it is not yet clear how the quantitative and qualitative changes may translate into altered health effects; research into this question is needed.

In addition, existing fuels and vehicles without these modifications will take many years to be replaced, particularly in less developed countries, where regulatory measures are currently also less stringent.

It is notable that many parts of the developing world lack regulatory standards, and data on the occurrence and impact of diesel exhaust are limited.

Dr Christopher Portier, Chairman of the IARC working Group, stated that “the scientific evidence was compelling and the Working Group’s conclusion was unanimous: diesel engine exhaust causes lung cancer in humans.”

Diesel exhaust emissions from Guernsey Electricity power Station on 2 February 2009 (click image to expand - ©RLLord)

Dr Portier said “given the additional health impacts from diesel particulates, exposure to this mixture of chemicals should be reduced worldwide.”

Dr Kurt Straif, Head of the IARC Monographs Program, indicated that “the main studies that led to this conclusion were in highly exposed workers. However, we have learned from other carcinogens, such as radon, that initial studies showing a risk in heavily exposed occupational groups were followed by positive findings for the general population. Therefore actions to reduce exposures should encompass workers and the general population.”

Dr Christopher Wild, Director, IARC, said that “while IARC’s remit is to establish the evidence-base for regulatory decisions at national and international level, today’s conclusion sends a strong signal that public health action is warranted. This emphasis is needed globally, including among the more vulnerable populations in developing countries where new technology and protective measures may otherwise take many years to be adopted.”

The summary of the evaluation will appear in The Lancet Oncology as an online publication ahead of print on June 15, 2012.

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The whole press release can be downloaded from the IARC website.

 

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